System no longer fully boots after LUKS passphrase change

I will summarize the issue of my previous thread, as I believe it is related to the current issue:

I changed the LUKS passphrase using GNOME Disks and rebooted.
Since then, the boot sequence became:

  1. Enter correct passphrase
  2. System boots, but asks to enter passphrase again
  3. Will boot after two failures to recognize passphrase, regardless of what is entered.

This was annoying, but I figured i’d deal with it later.

Now, I have changed my LUKS passphrase once again using GNOME Disks, and the boot sequence has become the following:

  1. Enter correct passphrase
  2. Boot fails to complete, with the following output:

(Note that this is not the same as entering the wrong passphrase - that will bring me to grub. To my recollection, this has always been the case.)

I can only assume GNOME Disks has been gibbling up the passphrase change operation, but why the passphrase succeeds and then fails is strange.

Any suggestions on how to fix without formatting are greatly appreciated, my work machine is now unbootable. Thank you.